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قديم 01-07-2008, 03:15 PM   #1
Dr. Atallah F. Ahmed
عضـو هيئـة التـدريـس
  • معلومات
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رقم العضوية : 167
تاريخ التسجيل: May 2007
المشاركات: 765
الفرقة :
تواصل مع Dr. Atallah F. Ahmed:


Dr. Atallah F. Ahmed غير متواجد حالياً
افتراضي امتحان نهائى عقاقير -1 (pg202) مع الإجابة النموذجية

Clinical Pharmacy Programme Pharmacognosy-1 (PG 202)
Department of Pharmacognosy Date: 28th June 2008
Faculty of Pharmacy Total marks: 50 Marks
Mansoura University Time allowed: Two hours



تعليمات عامة
- تتكون ورقة الأسئلة من اربع (4) صفحات.
- اقرأ الأسئلة جيدا للتخطيط للإجابة الدقيقة و لتنظيم الوقت.
- الإجابة تكون بخط واضح و مقروء.
- يمكنك اجابة السؤال II قبل I.
- اجب عن كل قسم من كل سؤال فى صفحة منفصلة.


I. Introduction, Medicinal Leaves and Woods (25 Marks).

A. Compare between each of the following pairs of items: (9 marks)
1. Hydrolyzable tannins and condensed tannins (in chemical nature, action of acids, products of pyrolysis).
2. Green Tea and Black Tea. (in method of preparation, % of antioxidant polyphenols and % of free Caffeine).
3. Belladonna and Ginkgo leaves (in apex of leaf, one main active constituent, and major uses).

B. Correct the following statements without changing the underlined words:
(5 Marks)
1. Cocaine is the main active constituents of Jaborandi leaves and gives on hydrolysis tropane ****, methanol, and cinnamic acid.
2. a-Guaiconic acid of yellow sanadal wood can be used for detection of a blood stain since it reacts with the reductase enzyme to give blue color.
3. Scizolysogenous oil glands produce and store fixed oils in Eucalyptus and Buchu leaves which are belonging to family Myrtaceae.
4. Buchu leaves are used in treatment of varicose veins due to the presence of eugenol while Uva-ursi leaves can be used as urinary antiseptic due to the presence of camphor.
5. Both Rosemary and Peppermint leaves have stomata of cruciferous type, glandular trichomes of labiaceous type and their hot water extract gives bluish black color with 5% FeCl3 solution.

C. Choose the ONLY ONE INCONSISTENT WORD (or ITEM) among each of the following groups of words (or items) and EXPLAIN why it is inconsistent. (5 Marks)
1. Beeswax – Musk – Cod liver oil – Opium – Venom.
2. Galens – Avicenna – HippocratesAristotle – Discorides.
3. Flavonoids – Tannins – Pectin - Eugenol – Anthraquinone.
4. Adenation phenomenon – Acicular crystals of calcium oxalate – Solanaceae – Atropine– Trichomes with unicellular stalk and multicellular galndular head.
5. Guava leaves – Buchu leaves – Eucalyptus leaves – Squill leaves – Mentha leaves .


D. Investigate the following microscopical elements of the first column and then follow the instructions below.
Element
Column A
Column B
Column C

A1:its drug is exermely bitter

A2:its drug is used in treatment of glucoma.

A3:. its drug contains arbutin.

A4:its drug contains miotic alkaloid.

A5:its drug contains volatile oil.

A6: Its drug can be used in treatment of hyperhydrosis.
B1:Killer Killiani's test is specific test of its drug.

B2:Borntraeger's test is specific test of its drug.

B3:Its drug conatins a crystal layer of calcium oxalate.

B4: Vitali's test is specific test of its drug.

B5:It gives bluish black color with 5% FeCl3 solution.

B6:Its active constituent can be obtained by steam distillation.
C1:from a dorsiventral leaf.

C2:from an isobialteral leaf.

C3:from a centric leaf.

C4: the mesophyll of its leaf is un-differentiated.


Choose ONE suitable item from EACH of Column A, Column B, and Column C to match with every microscopical element from 1 to 3 then in your answer sheet put your answer as shown in the following style :
1. Ax, By, Cz
2. Am, Bn, Co
3. As, Bp, Cq (6 Marks)


II. Herbs, Barks, and Flowers(25 Marks).

Complete the following statements

A. Herbs: (8 marks)
1. The herb is defined as ................
2. The types of vascular bundles are ................
3. Powdered mentha is differentiated from powdered thymus by ................
4. Cannabis herb is defined as ................ and its powder can be identified microscopically by the presence of ................ and ................
5. Powdered Lobelia is used in ................ and ................

B. Barks: (7 marks)
1. Rhytidoma is considered as ................
2. The key element of powder Cinchona is .............., while that of powder Cassia is ..............
3. Cinnamon contains ................ as active constituent which is not present in Cassia bark, and is used in the synthesis of ................
4. Frangula bark should not used medicinally unless kept for at least one year to ................
5. Galls contains ............ as an active constituents, which on hydrolysis yield ............. and ............. and is used in ................
6. Anthraquinone glycosides are tested by ............. and give ................ colour, while flavonoides give ................ colour with ................ reagent.

C. Flowers: (10 marks)
1. The flower of used in treatment of burns is ................, in treatment of bruises is ................, as insecticide is ................, and as perfuming agent is ................
2. A triangular pollen grains are present in ................, while that ones with six germinal pores are present in ................
3. The active constituents of German Chamomile are ................
4. Cottony hair is present in ................ while T-shaped hair is present in ................
5. Family compositae is characterized by ................

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تجرى الإمتحانات الشفهية بعد انتهاء اعمال الإمتحان التحريرى مباشرة


















Model Answer for Question I

I. Introduction, Medicinal Leaves and Woods (25 Marks).
A. Compare between each of the following pairs of items: (9 marks)
1.
Condensed tannins
Hyrdolyzable tannin
Polymer of flavan-3-ol and -3,4-ol
Esters of gallic/ellagic acid with sugar (glucose)
Nature
More condensation
Hydrolysis à sugar + gallic and/or ellagic acid
Action of Acids (HCl)
Catechol
Pyrogallol
Pyrolysis
2.
Black tea
Green tea
left to be oxidized much longer before drying
(full fermentation)
Steamed (Japanese method) or roasted (Chinese method) soon after picking to stop oxidation by killing Thease enzyme
Method of prep.
Low
High
% antioxidant polyphenols
Double %
~ 20 mg/cup
Free Caffeine
3.
Ginkgo
Belladonna
Deeply notched (deeply emrginate)
Acuminate
Apex of leaf
Flavonoids (25%) e.g.amentoflavone (dimer)
Tropane alkaloids e.g. Hyoscyamine, atropine, and hyoscine
Main A.C.
age-related physical and mental deterioration e.g. Schizophrenia - Alzheimer's disease.
Anticholiergic: antispamodic, mydriatic, anodyne, hyperhydrosis….etc
Major use

B. Correct the following statements (5 Marks):
1. Cocaine is the main active constituents of Coca leaves and gives on hydrolysis ecgonine ****, methanol, and benzoic acid.
2. a-Guaiconic acid of yellow Guaiacum wood can be used for detection of a blood stain since it reacts with the (per)oxidase enzyme to give blue color.
3. Scizolysogenous oil glands produce and store volatile (essential) oils in Eucalyptus and Guava leaves which are belonging to family Myrtaceae (Or Buchu à Rutaceae).
4. Buchu leaves are used in treatment of varicose veins due to the presence of diosmin (or flavonoids) while Uva-ursi leaves can be used as urinary antiseptic due to the presence of arbutin.
5. Both Rosemary and Peppermint leaves have stomata of caryophyllaceous (diacytic) type, glandular trichomes of labiaceous type and their hot water extract gives greenish black color with 5% FeCl3 solution.

C. Choose the ONLY ONE INCONSISTENT WORD and EXPLAIN why. (5 Marks)
1. Opium: plant (not animal product).
2. Avicenna: Islamic or arabic (not Greek) pharmacist/physcian.
3. Pectin: Polysaccharides (not phenolic).
4. Acicular crystals of calcium oxalate: (should be microsphenoidal type).
5. Squill leaves: contain (cardiac) glycoside not conatin essential oils.


D. (6 Marks)

1. A6, B4, C2
2. A1, B1, C1 or/& C4
3. A5, B6, C1

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